Vaccine For Preventable Infectious Diseases

A vaccine is a suspension of organisms or fractions of organisms that is used to induce immunity. Vaccination programs have been greatly successful in reducing morbidity and mortality from various infectious diseases. The great success of the eradication of smallpox serves as the model guide for other vaccination programs and proper first aid treatment.

The material posted on this blog for vaccinations of infectious diseases is for learning purposes only. If you need more information about vaccinations speak to your local physician. Prevention of disease transmission is a vital component of any first aid and or CPR course. To learn to prevent disease transmission when providing aid enrol in a course here.

Measles

infectious diseases

Wearing protective gloves

Measles, also known as rubeola, red measles, or hard measles, is a highly contagious disease. It can be transmitted via airborne route. It has an incubation period of 11 to 14 days after exposure. Initial symptoms of the disease include cough, nasal drainage, and conjunctivitis. The hallmark symptom of measles is the Koplik spots (tiny raised specks on the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat), which develops into a rash after 2 to 3 days. The rash commonly appears first on the face and neck, and extends to the trunk and extremities. Complication of measles may include pneumonia, diarrhea, and malnutrition.

Treatment of measles is symptomatic which includes antipyretics for fever and hydration for diarrhea. Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) vaccine is usually given in 12 to 15 months of age.

Mumps

Mumps is an acute viral infection that usually affects children and young adults. It can also be transmitted via airborne route. The incubation period is 16 to 18 days, and the virus becomes communicable for 3 to 5 days. Initial symptoms include fever, body malaise, and anorexia. The hallmark symptom of mumps is parotitis that may be unilateral or bilateral. Complications include pancreatitis, orchitis, myocarditis, oophoritis, and deafness.

Treatment includes bed rest and foods that are easy to chew and digest. MMR also serves as the preventive vaccine.

Influenza

Influenza is a pandemic acute viral disease that easily spreads from host to host. A previous influenza infection may still result to future infections with different subtypes or the same subtype after antigenic alteration. It can be transmitted through droplet contact. Initial symptoms include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and cough.

Treatment includes rest for comfort, acetaminophen for body aches and fever, expectorant and antitussives for cough, and plenty of water for hydration. Aspirin is prohibited to children with flu because of its high association with Reye’s syndrome. An influenza vaccination is recommended for the elderly and health care workers. Every year, a new vaccine with three virus strains is being available in the market.

Reference:

Healthy People. Immunization and Infectious Diseases. Retrieved on July 11, 2014 from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=23

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